Monday, June 23, 2014

Cardiac Tamponade

What is Cardiac Tamponade?
Cardiac tamponade is a mechanical compression of the heart. It happens when the intrapericardial pressure rises due to unchecked fluid accumulation within the pericardial sac. 
Definition -fluid quickly fills pericardial sac and limits cardiac output; cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency  
Etiology
o   acute pericarditis
o   post-op after cardiac surgery
o   pericardial effusions
o   chest trauma
o   myocardial rupture
o   aortic dissection
o   anticoagulant therapy
Findings: classic triad of findings
    • hypotension with
    • muffled heart sounds with
    • high jugular venous pressure (increased CVP)  
Management - pericardiocentesis: needle aspiration of pericardial sac
Nursing interventions
    1. bed rest with elevated head of bed
    2. prepare client for pericardiocentesis
    3. provide emotional support

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